To activate Outlook on your iPhone, you can use the Outlook app. Details listed below on how to configure the Outlook app.
NOTE: If you are using a generic mail client on your phone, it will require an app password. You will need to generate an app password first and authenticate through the generic mail client on your phone with the app password.
1. Go to the app store and download the official Microsoft Outlook app.
2. Enter full work email address, i.e. email@example.com
3. It will redirect you to CIT login page. Enter username and password.
4. As MFA has been turned on, it will ask you to input verification code you will have received by text, or approve from the prompt from the authenticator app on your mobile device.